Specializations in CAHP are categorized into 15 areas of practice. Each specialization is defined by CAHP’s Board of Directors. Categories and definitions may change at any time.


This Area of Practice includes the study of past human lifeway patterns and development through the physical remains (e.g., artifacts and features) and non-physical aspects (social, cultural, linguistic) of activity. Included is the study of these remains, both with or without the aid of historical documentation, in an effort to learn about past cultures, understand how they survived and developed, and apply that knowledge to current or future cultural problems or concerns. This Area of Practice includes locating and recording archaeological resources without physically removing them from their context.


This Area of Practice involves selecting, preserving, managing and making available the original records and documents that chronicle the development of public and private organizations and agencies.  This includes providing advice on the principles of archival science and administration, and archival research skills and their multi-discipline research applications.


This Area of Practice involves developing an understanding of, advising on or managing the conservation of built heritage. It encompasses architecture and engineering, building science and building enclosure issues, construction techniques, as-found documentation and rehabilitation planning. Services can include providing conservation recommendations, making design decisions relevant to heritage fabric, and directing and overseeing the work of crafts and trades persons. Included is providing technical and philosophical guidance for rehabilitation strategies, in the context of current code requirements and best conservation practices. This Area of Practice often considers existing and future design conditions and requirements.


This Area of Practice encompasses understanding materials, objects, art works, and immovable cultural properties such as buildings, monuments, outdoor sculptures and heritage sites. Included are the study of current composition and condition; interactions with interior/exterior environments; assessing treatment options and priorities; implementing material treatments; and monitoring conditions over time.  Modifying or upgrading the operating, storage or display conditions may be included for moveable pieces or collections.

Craft & Trade

This Area of Practice relates primarily to building or building component rehabilitation, restoration, preservation and interpretation. Specialized skills include authentic historic and heritage crafts; condition assessments; conservation advice; restoration and replication; interior finishing; and the teaching of heritage crafts and trades.  This area also includes technical advice on sourcing/location of specialized heritage materials, documentation and contract implementation.

Cultural Tourism & Marketing

This Area of Practice includes providing asset research and inventorying, market and financial analysis, strategic planning, communication planning, financial strategies and thematic analysis to museums, governmental agencies, art galleries, archives and other heritage or non-heritage institutions.


Heritage related education activities include academic positions at universities and/or specialized heritage institutes, writing, lecturing and chairing active technical committees in the heritage field, and the development of school programs for heritage education.

Cultural Tourism & Marketing

This Area of Practice includes providing asset research and inventorying, market and financial analysis, strategic planning, communication planning, financial strategies and thematic analysis to museums, governmental agencies, art galleries, archives and other heritage or non-heritage institutions.

Environmental Assessment

This Area of Practice captures a range of services provided for provincial and/or federal environmental assessment legislation, including archaeological, built heritage and cultural landscape resource assessment. Work can include built heritage and cultural landscape inventories, policy and guideline development, waste site assessment, wind farm site assessment, linear right-of-way assessments for roads, railways, etc., and mitigation recommendations.


This Area of Practice comprises historical research, analysis and interpretation. Included are studies documenting and assessing the significance of heritage buildings, structures, works and sites in connection with land use planning, or in relation to museum and other heritage facility development projects. Also included are heritage district studies, giving expert testimony before panels and boards, policy and archival assignments, and writing narrative essays of business and community history. Additional work may involve developing scripts, finding locations or identifying suitable archival photographs or illustrations for film, television and print media.


This Area of Practice includes landscape conservation, encompassing natural landscapes of heritage value, historic gardens and historical landscapes and cultural landscapes. Included are master plan reports for landscape conservation, on-site landscape restoration and interpretation, research into historic plantings, and preparation of history plant lists associated with historic properties.


This Area of Practice includes addressing the needs of the museum community from the feasibility, planning and development stage through construction, renovation or rehabilitation.  Also included are collections management and conservation, and interpretive and educational program planning.

Photography, Illustration and/or Recording

This Area of Practice includes the specialized skills needed to document, illustrate and record heritage resources so that heritage professionals can make informed decisions regarding the value and safeguarding of a heritage resource.


This Area of Practice includes formal planning matters related to developing and implementing site analysis and development plans; official community, district or conservation area plans; master planning; municipal/regional/territorial planning; and housing and Main Street revitalization. Also included are planning administration; coordination for advisory committees/commissions/councils and other public agencies; providing advice to private and public parties regarding heritage sites and landscapes; legislative review and formulation; providing expert testimony at public hearings; and evaluating planning applications in accordance with statutory, regulatory and policy guidance. This Area of Practice may also comprise strategic planning, marketing and financial analysis, and interpretation and management related to cultural and heritage tourism development.

Public Sector

This Area of Practice pertains to various levels of government or public or quasi-public agencies. It involves administration, historical research, education, procedure and program development, and provision of advice and assistance concerning the conservation and protection of heritage resources in their respective jurisdictions.

Other Cultural Heritage Practice Areas

The Area of Practice includes a range of other heritage activities of a unique and specialized nature not included in other CAHP Areas of Practice.

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