The Archaeology & Anthropology Specialists Area of Practice includes the study of past human lifeway patterns and development through the physical remains (e.g., artifacts and features such as pits and middens) and non-physical aspects (social, cultural, linguistic) of activity. Included is the study of these remains, both with or without the aid of historical documentation, in an effort to learn about past cultures, understand how they change through time, and apply that knowledge to current or future cultural problems or concerns. This Area of Practice includes locating and recording archaeological resources without physically removing them from their context, or removing them in a systematic way, if required.
Archivists are responsible for selecting, preserving, managing and making available the original records and documents that chronicle the development of public and private organizations and agencies. They provide advice on the principles of archival science and administration, and archival research skills and their multi-discipline research applications. Other heritage consultant and archivist services may include conducting seminars and educational workshops.
This Area of Practice involves developing an understanding of, advising on and managing the conservation of built heritage in accordance with established conservation principles and statutory and regulatory policies. Responsibilities may consist of the interpretation and compliance with official community plans, district/neighbourhood plans, special area plans and conservation area plans at various government levels.
It includes advising the private and public sectors regarding the planning and development of built, natural and cultural heritage resources including individual landmarks, properties of local significance, historic districts, National Historic Sites, Heritage Corridors, streetscapes, urban form, and Main Street Revitalization projects. Services can include assessing impacts on the historic built environment and providing conservation recommendations that consider heritage significance, integrity, settings, form and fabric.
This Area of Practice may encompass varying aspects of:
- Urban design
- Building science
- Building systems
- Building envelopes
- Construction techniques, and
- The preparation, interpretation and analysis of as-found documentation to inform conservation planning and design within the preservation, rehabilitation restoration treatments for historic places
Included in this Area of Practice is the provision of technical advice and potential alternative approaches that are grounded in conservation principles while taking into account current planning and code requirements. This Area of practice may also include reviewing the proposed work of crafts and trades persons and undertaking site reviews of work-in-progress, substantial completion, deficiency identification and project close-out.
Conservators are concerned with the long-term health and wellbeing of our cultural heritage. They understand the heritage technology of an object or piece of artwork and how it recommends with its environment. Their work includes:
- Small remedial treatments which correct potentially deleterious situations
- Surveying a collection’s condition to identify treatment priorities
- Modifying and upgrading existing storage/display conditions
- Monitoring an object or collection’s condition over time
- Training museum workers and volunteers on the basic care and handling of their collection
Conservators have a key role to play in designing museum or heritage gallery facilities. From the initial planning stages, they work with other heritage professionals such as architects, curators and exhibit designers to plan new facilities or retrofit existing ones, ensuring that the well-being of the collection is an integral part of the whole process.
This Area of Practice relates primarily to building conservation or building component interpretation, including preservation, rehabilitation and restoration.
Specialized skills include:
- Authentic historic and heritage crafts
- Condition assessments
- Conservation advice/practice
- Restoration and replication
- Interior finishing
- Teaching of heritage crafts and trades
This area also includes technical support for sourcing/location of specialized heritage materials, project documentation and contract implementation.
Members in this category provide museums, art galleries, archives, other heritage institutions and the private sector with the expertise needed to properly plan and market their heritage facilities. Services available include asset research and inventorying, market and financial analysis, strategic planning, communication planning, financial strategies and thematic analysis.
The members within the education category are involved in a range of heritage related education activities. Several have academic positions at universities, while others are associated with specialized heritage institutes. Many are well-known authors, lecturers and chairs of active technical committees in the heritage field. A second area of involvement for many has been in the development of public-school education programs, often associated with heritage institutions.
Members within this field provide a range of heritage services to government and private companies undertaking planning studies within provincial and/or federal environment assessment legislation. The major heritage activities include archaeological, built heritage and cultural landscape resource assessment. Some members offer management and team planning as well as individual contributions. Specialties include archaeological potential modelling, built heritage and cultural landscape inventories, policy and guideline development, waste site assessment, linear right-of-way assessments such as roads, railways, etc., and mitigation recommendations.
A historian has particular expertise in historical research, analysis and interpretation. Many have conducted studies documenting and assessing the significance of heritage buildings, structures, works and sites in connection with land use planning, or in relation to museum and other heritage facility development projects. Others have extensive experience in undertaking environment impact assessment and heritage district studies and in giving expert testimony before panels and boards. Some members of this category have made a specialty of policy and archival assignments or of writing narrative essays in business and community history. Also noted are those working in film, television and print media in developing scripts, finding locations or identifying suitable archival photographs for stills and illustrations.
A landscape specialist has a broad interest in landscape conservation, encompassing natural landscapes of heritage value, historic gardens and historical landscapes and cultural landscapes. Many of the specialists in this category are professional Landscape Architects. The work encompasses on-site specific landscape restoration, including historic landscape conservation and interpretation, research into historic plantings and preparation of historic plant lists association with historic properties. Master plan reports for landscape conservation are conducted as well as environment impact assessments as part of larger public developments such as highways, electrical transmission facilities and waste disposal sites.
Museum specialists include a wide range of heritage professionals who fulfil the many needs of the museum community. Museum specialists include architects, conservators, curators, educators, management consultants, and museum planners. The services provided by these individuals address the needs of the museum from the feasibility, planning and development stage through construction, renovation or rehabilitation. Collections management and conservation, interpretive and educational program planning are also services offered.
The graphic illustration of heritage resources is equally important to the conservation process as understanding history and developing planning or management strategies. An account or precise visual record is imperative to making informed decisions regarding the value and safeguarding of a heritage resource. This visual illustration or record may be achieved using a variety of methods. The two most commonly used involve photography and architectural drawing. This category lists persons who provide the specialized skills needed to illustrate and record heritage resources.
Planning is the broadest group of specialists since most heritage professionals consider themselves to be “Heritage Planners” to some extent. There is, however, a core of members in this category that are professional Planners. Planning activities include strategic planning; marketing and financial analysis for cultural facilities; interpretation and management of heritage attractions, museums, and interpretive centers; and planning related to cultural and heritage tourism development. Another focus of activity includes formal planning matters related to site selection and development plans; policy and legislative formulation; environmental assessment; municipal planning; master planning and zoning by-law restrictions; and, urban design, including public space, housing and main street revitalization. Other activities carried out by members include planning administration, coordination for a LACAC and involvement with other public agencies; teaching, writing, research, and lecturing; providing expert testimony at public hearings; advocating better conservation and preservation strategies.
This Area of Practice involves the management of projects in accordance with established conservation principles and statutory, regulatory and policy guidance, including the Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada. This Area of Practice may encompass varying aspects of project planning, design, conservation, and development of historic places. Responsibilities may include the coordination and review of the work of specialists in other CAHP Areas of Practice.
Public Sector Representatives are heritage practitioners working for various levels of government or public or quasi-public agencies. The work of these members involves administration, historical research, education, procedure and program development, and provision of advice and assistance concerning the conservation and protection of heritage resources in their respective jurisdictions. Some members may be able to supply freelance consultation while all members support the exchange of heritage related information and ideas.
The category includes a range of other heritage specialists who have expertise of a unique and specialized nature not included in other CAHP specialist categories.